Gender Inequality Research Paper

Gender Inequality Research Paper

Gender inequality is the idea and situation that men and women are not equal. Gender inequality acknowledges the different treatment or perceptions of individuals wholly or partly due to their gender. It arises from differences in biology, psychology, and cultural norms. Gender  Inequality Research Paper The study of gender inequality observes these distinctions, whether empirically grounded or socially constructed. Studies show the different lived experience of genders across many domains including education, life expectancy, personality, interests, labor, and political affiliations. Gender inequality is experienced to varying degrees differently across cultures.

Inequality Across
Gender Diversity

 

The global trend towards extreme wealth and income concentration has dramatically strengthened the economic and political power of those individuals — overwhelmingly male — at the top. In the United States and around the world, women continue to be underrepresented in high-level, highly paid positions and overrepresented in low-paying jobs. Women of color and transgender individuals experience particularly high levels of poverty, unemployment, and other economic hardships. Gender discrimination and sexual harassment in the workplace contribute significantly to these persistent economic divides.Gender  Inequality Research Paper

Gender Income Gaps

Gender Wealth Gaps

Gender Poverty Gaps

Transgender Economic Gaps


Gender Income Gaps

Female-dominated occupations — such as childcare and restaurant service — continue to occupy the lower rungs of the U.S. wage ladder. Women make up 63 percent of workers earning the federal minimum wage, a wage rate stuck at $7.25 since 2009. By contrast, women represent only 5 percent of CEOs at Fortune 500 firms. CEOs took home $13.1 million on average in 2016.

 

White males particularly dominate highly lucrative financial industry jobs. At the top five U.S. investment banks (JPMorgan Chase, Goldman Sachs, Bank of America Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley, and Citigroup), males make up from 69 to 82 percent executives and top managers. The share who are white ranges from 78 to 87 percent. More than two-thirds of all New York City securities industry employees were male in 2016, and nearly two-thirds were white.

 

Men make up an overwhelming majority of top earners across the U.S. economy, even though women now represent almost half of the country’s workforce. Women comprise just 27 percent of the top 10 percent, and their share of higher income groups runs even smaller. Among the top 1 percent, women make up slightly less than 17 percent of workers, while at the top 0.1 percent level, they make up only 11 percent.

 

Other major economies show similar trend lines. A study of eight high-income countries found that women made up just 14 percent to 22 percent of the top 1 percent of earners.Gender  Inequality Research Paper These surveys were conducted during the 2010-2014 period. The U.S. figure is from 2012.

 

Throughout the U.S. workforce, women remain vastly underpaid. Among full-time workers, women earned less than 81 cents for every dollar a man earned in 2016. If part-time workers were included, the gap would be even wider, since women are more likely to work reduced schedules, often in order to manage child rearing and other care giving work.

 

Within racial groups, the largest pay gaps between men and women appear among whites and Asians — not because Latins and black women have made faster progress towards equity but because average pay for men in these groups falls far below the compensation of white and Asian men.

 

American women earn less than men, on average, in all industries. The largest pay gaps are in management positions, where men made $88,000 on average in 2016, compared to just $55,000 for women. The smallest gap appears in the construction sector, but women make up only 9 percent of workers in this industry.

 

The U.S. gender pay gap, while unacceptably large, is not the world’s widest. But accurately measuring these gaps across countries can be difficult. Within the OECD group of higher-income nations, South Korea holds the widest gap, with men earning 37 percent more than women, on average. The country with the narrowest gap: Luxembourg, where men make just 3.4 percent more than women. Gaps have been smallest in OECD countries where the share of workers covered by collective bargaining agreements hits at least 80 percent and widest in countries with weak collective bargaining and no or very low minimum wages.Gender  Inequality Research Paper

The International Labor Organization concedes that more work needs to be done to develop more accurate global gender gap analyses. One factor skewing the numbers: Women do considerably more unpaid work, from housekeeping to caring for children and the elderly. Among the 21 countries reporting data for at least one year during the 2013-2015 period, the West Bank and Gaza had the greatest imbalance, with men devoting just 16 percent as much time to unpaid domestic and caregiving work as women. Belgium, where men spend 63 percent as much time on these activities as women, ranked at the top.

 

In the UK, a new regulation requires corporations to disclose the pay gaps between their male and female employees. Financial firms have among the largest divides because of the scarcity of women in top positions. In 2018, HSBC reported the biggest gap, with the bank’s female employees averaging just 41 percent as much as UK male employees. For all 10,000 firms in the survey, the median-paid male employee received 9.7 percent more in pay than the median female.

 


Gender Wealth Gaps

Most inequality analysis focuses on income (the wages earned from a job or from capital gains) rather than wealth (the sum of one’s assets minus debts). Income inequality, while stark, pales in comparison to wealth inequality. The divides become even more dramatic when viewed through a gender lens.

At the top end, we have no more striking sign of increasing global wealth concentration than the rise of the billionaire class. The number of individuals with fortunes worth at least $1 billion more than doubled between 2010 and 2018, while remaining overwhelmingly male. In 2018, only 256 women ranked among the world’s 2,208 billionaires.Gender  Inequality Research Paper Seventy-seven hail from the United States, more than double the number in any other country.

 

One important component of wealth, retirement savings, shows an even wider gap between men and women. According to the Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies, American women in 2017 held $42,000 in median retirement savings, compared to $123,000 for men. Some 21 percent of women and 12 percent of men have less than $10,000 in retirement accounts. Both pension plan and Social Security payouts reflect in part past earnings. The gender pay gap means women end up with fewer post-retirement resources. In 2017, the $15,000 average annual Social Security benefit for women lagged the benefit for men by $4,000. The smaller retirement nest eggs of women also have to stretch further than male retirement savings, simply because women have longer life expediencies.

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Debt also significantly impacts wealth. Crushing student loan burdens drag many young Americans far into the negative side of the wealth line, with the heaviest for female students. Women comprise 56 percent of college students, but hold nearly two-thirds of outstanding student loan debt.

 

According to the American Association of University Women, black women graduate with the most debt — $30,400, on average — compared to $22,000 for white women and $19,500 for white men.

 


Gender Poverty Gaps

The gender poverty gap widened over the past 50 years. In 1968, 10.8 percent of women aged 18-64 (6.1 million women) and 7.2 percent of men (3.7 million) in this age group lived below the poverty line. In 2016, 13.4 percent of women in this age group (13.4 million women) were living in poverty, compared to 9.7 percent of adult men (9.4 million men). The poverty threshold for a single person in 2016: $11,880 in annual income.Gender  Inequality Research Paper Households led by single women with children had a poverty rate of 35.6 percent, more than twice the 17.3 percent rate for households led by single men with children, according to the National Women’s Law Center.

 

Poverty is a particularly acute problem for women of color, affecting 21.4 percent of Black women, 18.7 percent of Latinas, and 22.8 percent of Native American women, compared to the national poverty rate for white men of 7.0 percent.

 


Transgender Economic Gaps

Transgender Americans experience poverty at double the rate of the general population, and transgender people of color experience even higher rates. The National Center for Transgender Equality has found that 43 percent of Latino, 41 percent of Native American, 40 percent of multiracial, and 38 percent of Black transgender respondents lived in poverty in 2015.

 

In 2015, the overall unemployment rate for transgender Americans stood at 15 percent, compared to 5 percent for the general population.Gender  Inequality Research Paper The unemployment rate ran even higher for American Indian, Black, Latino, Middle Eastern, and multi-racial transgender Americans.

Examples of Gender Inequality
  1. Infant Life Expectancy: In India and China, the two most populous nations in the world, there is significant data that shows a survival disadvantage for girls under five years of age. In China, girls have a seven percent higher infant mortality rate than boys, and in India, a study conducted in the first decade of the 2000s found that the risk of death between the ages of one and five was 75 percent higher for girls than for boys.
  2. Access to Prenatal Care and Maternal Mortality: As of 2017, there are 1.6 billion women of reproductive age in the developing world. Of the 127 million women who gave birth in 2017, just 63 percent received a minimum of four antenatal care visits and only 72 percent gave birth in a health facility. Among women who experienced medical complications during pregnancy or delivery, only one in three received the care they or their newborns needed.

    In 2017, an estimated 308,000 women in developing nations died from pregnancy-related causes and 2.7 million babies died in their first month of life. Many of these deaths could have been prevented with full access to healthcare.
  3. Education: Less than 40 percent of countries offer girls and boys equal access to education and only 39 percent of countries have equal proportions of the sexes enrolled in secondary education. By achieving universal primary and secondary education attainability in the adult population, it could be possible to lift more than 420 million people out of poverty. This would have its greatest effect on women and girls who are the most likely to never have stepped foot inside a school.Gender  Inequality Research Paper

    Even once girls are attending school, discrimination follows. One in four girls states that they never feel comfortable using school latrines. Girls are at greater risk of sexual violence, harassment and exploitation in school. School-related gender-based violence is another major obstacle to universal schooling and the right to education for girls.
  4. Illiteracy: There are approximately 774 million illiterate adults in the world and two-thirds of them are women. There are approximately 123 million illiterate youths and 61 percent of them are girls. Women’s share in the illiterate population has not budged in 20 years. These facts not only affect women but their children as well. A child born to a mother with the ability to read is 50 percent more likely to survive past age five.
  5. Economic Independence: Increases in female labor force participation result in faster economic growth, but women continue to participate in labor markets on an unequal basis with men. In 2013, the male employment-to-population ratio was 72.2 percent compared to 47.1 percent for women, and women continue to earn only 60-75 percent of men’s wages globally. It is estimated that women’s income could increase globally up to 76 percent if the employment participation gap between men and women was closed, which could have a global value of $17 trillion.

    Women also carry a disproportionate amount of responsibility for unpaid care work. Women devote one to three hours more a day to housework than men, two to 10 times the amount of time a day to care (for children, elderly and the sick) and one to four hours less a day to income-based activities. The time given to these unpaid tasks directly and negatively impacts women’s participation in the workforce and their ability to foster economic independence.
  6. Violence Against Women, Sexual Assault and Rape: The mental health effects of sexual assault and rape can have jarring results on women’s stability and livelihoods. Women who have experienced sexual or physical abuse at the hands of their partners are twice as likely to have an abortion, almost twice as likely to have depression and, in some regions, 1.5 times more likely to acquire HIV compared with women who have not experienced partner violence.Gender  Inequality Research Paper

    The prevalence of sexual assault and violence against women is deep and systemic, making it one of the most important examples of gender inequality. Worldwide, around 120 million girls, a number which represents slightly more than one in 10, have experienced forced intercourse or another forced sexual act in their lifetime.
  7. Female Genital Mutilation: At least 200 million women and girls alive today have undergone female genital mutilation. In most of these cases, the majority of girls were cut before age five. In these instances, proper anesthesia is rarely used or is ineffective, causing severe pain. Excessive bleeding is also possible, resulting from the accidental cutting of the clitoral artery or other blood vessels during the procedure. Chronic genital infections, reproductive tract infections and urinary tract infections are common.Female genital mutilation is also associated with an increased risk of Caesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage and extended maternal hospital stay.Gender  Inequality Research Paper All of these subsequent complications along with the shock and use of physical force during the procedure are some of the many reasons why survivors describe the experience as an extremely traumatic event.
  8. Child Marriage: Globally, almost 750 million women and girls alive today married before their eighteenth birthday. Those who suffer from child marriage often experience early pregnancy which is a key factor in the premature end of education. As mothers and wives, girls become socially isolated and are at an increased risk for domestic violence. Child marriage is one the most devastating examples of gender inequality, as it limits women’s opportunities and their ability to reach their full individual potential.
  9. Human Trafficking: Adult women and girls account for 71 percent of all human trafficking victims detected globally. Girls alone represent nearly three out of every four children trafficked. Women and girls are clearly the disproportionate victims of human trafficking with 75 percent trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation.
  10. Representation in Government: As of June 2016, only 22.8 percent of all national parliamentarians were women. There is growing evidence that women in positions of leadership and political decision-making improve the systems in which they work.

Gender inequality remains a major barrier to human development. Girls and women have made major strides since 1990, but they have not yet gained gender equity. The disadvantages facing women and girls are a major source of inequality.Gender  Inequality Research Paper All too often, women and girls are discriminated against in health, education, political representation, labour market, etc.—with negative consequences for development of their capabilities and their freedom of choice.

The GII is an inequality index. It measures gender inequalities in three important aspects of human development—reproductive health, measured by maternal mortality ratio and adolescent birth rates; empowerment, measured by proportion of parliamentary seats occupied by females and proportion of adult females and males aged 25 years and older with at least some secondary education; and economic status, expressed as labour market participation and measured by labour force participation rate of female and male populations aged 15 years and older. The GII is built on the same framework as the IHDI—to better expose differences in the distribution of achievements between women and men. It measures the human development costs of gender inequality. Thus the higher the GII value the more disparities between females and males and the more loss to human development.

The GII sheds new light on the position of women in 160 countries; it yields insights in gender gaps in major areas of human development. The component indicators highlight areas in need of critical policy intervention and it stimulates proactive thinking and public policy to overcome systematic disadvantages of women.

More details on calculation of the GII are given in Technical Notes.

Facts About Gender Inequality
In 2016, just 57 percent world’s working-age women are in the labor force, compared to 70 percent of working-age men. Microlending programs like Kiva help women start and sustain their own businesses. (Department of Labor)

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2. Women with full-time jobs still earn only about 77 percent of their male counterparts’ earnings. Talk about how much you earn, and report inequality. Learn about how to file a charge of discrimination with the EEOC here. (White House)

3. African-American women earn 64 cents and Latina women earn 56 cents for every dollar earned by a Caucasian man. Lean In offers resources for negotiation in the workplace. (White House)

4. 62 million girls are denied an education all over the world, and former First Lady Michelle Obama started shining a light on this issue through her Let Girls Learn initiative in 2015. #UpForSchool wants to continue to fight to change that. Sign their petition here. (UN Foundation; 62 Million Girls)

5. Every year, an estimated 15 million girls under 18 are married worldwide, with little or no say in the matter. Girls Not Brides studies the problem and is working to find workable solutions. They know that education and empowerment for girls are the first steps. You can help by sharing the facts or donating to projects making a difference.

6. 4 out of 5 victims of human trafficking are girls. The Malala Fund raises awareness and funds for girls to get out of this cycle and into school. (Malala Fund)

7. According to the UN Foundation, “At least 250,000 maternal deaths and as many as 1.7 million newborn deaths would be averted if the need for both family planning and maternal and newborn health services were met.”

8. On average, 30 percent of women who have been in a relationship report that they have experienced some form of physical or sexual violence by their partner. The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence offers volunteer opportunities, and you can support them at their events by checking their calendar here. (WHO)

9. Female genital mutilation (FGM) affects more than 200 million girls and women alive today in 30 countries. It is recognized internationally as a human rights violation. Equality Now offers specific points that will help you take action against FGM worldwide. (WHO)

10. American women serving in Iraq or Afghanistan are more likely to be raped by a comrade then killed by an enemy, and the rate of sexual harassment reports is higher than ever. In 2016, service members reported 6,172 cases of sexual assault compared to 6,082 in 2015. The Service Women’s Action Network helps achieve equal opportunities, protections and benefits for women in the military. Learn about their mission. (Pentagon; NBC)

11. Until recently, women in Saudi Arabia weren’t allowed to drive and are still discouraged from working jobs that would put them in contact with men. The unemployment rate for women is 33 percent for women, 7 percent for men.

12. At least 1000 honor killings occur in India and Pakistan each annually. Honor based crimes are distinguished by the fact that they are often carried out by a victim’s family or community. The Honour Based Violence Awareness Network includes resources for victims and allies. (HBVA)

13. As of early 2017, 223 colleges in the United States had a total of 304 pending Title IX sexual violence investigations (quadrupled from 2014). Learn how you can help stop sexual assault at It’s On Us. (NPR)

14. Women around the world aged 15-44 are more at risk from rape and domestic violence than from cancer, car accidents, war and malaria. (UN)

15. Around the world, only 32 percent of all national parliamentarians are female. That’s more than double the number in 1995, but still a marker of slow change.Gender  Inequality Research Paper Running Start is an organization that helps bring young women into politics. Learn about their programs and events here. (UN)

16. By 2020, there will be 1.4 million open technology jobs in the U.S. and, at the current rate of students graduating with degrees in computer science, men will outnumber women 4:1. Girls Who Code aims to educate and expose at least 1 million girls to computer science by 2020. Learn more about what they do here. (Microsoft Research)

17. One in five women on U.S. college campuses have experienced sexual assault. End Rape on Campus offers resources for survivors and supporters, working to bring more cases to court and raise awareness. (AAUW)

18. Women currently hold 24, or 4.8 percent of CEO positions at S&P 500 companies. Mentor ship programs like Step Up help keep girls in school, getting them that much closer to an executive position. Learn how you can play a part. (Catalyst)

19. More than 43 million people around the world are forcibly displaced as a result of conflict and persecution. Half of all refugees are women. Zainab Salbi founded Women for Women International to help women in war-torn countries build their own futures. (UN)

20. Less than 30 percent of the world’s researchers are women. Google has a program to inspire the next generation of tech innovators. Learn how to help girls gain exposure to careers in science and technology. (UNESCO)

21. One in three women worldwide have experienced either intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime. Amnesty International pushes for laws that recognize this statistic, and its website has a list of ways to get involved in the change. (WHO)

In 2017, women were strongly reminded of our gender inequality and the abuse of power. When we live in a culture where genders are not treated equally, women are at risk of being over-powered and mistreated in the workplace and in their intimate relationships. It’s the latter I want to address here.

Cultural Influence on Intimate Relationships

Many years ago, a 60-year-old woman in one of my recovery groups for women with controlling partners asked, “Do I need to be a feminist to be in this group?” I said, “No.” I recall telling her she didn’t need to be one for equal rights.Gender  Inequality Research Paper She should expect her husband to treat her respectfully. I added that women who choose a more traditional marriage are certainly not signing up to be abused. I now wonder if it is possible to have one without the other.

We know that physical or psychological abuse is created by a power inequality within an intimate relationship. This discrepancy then leads to an abuse of that power. Research shows when a partner dominates or over-powers another, it is a prime deterrent to a successful relationship (Greenberg & Goldman 2008). In other words, when one intimate partner coerces another to obtain the upper hand, it is a setup for the relationship to fail without exception. Research reveals this about marital relationships:

  • Husbands are likely to receive more support from their spouse
  • Husbands fair far better in marriage
  • Women receive less support from their spouse
  • Women experience greater stress from giving support
  • Women experience a higher rate of depression in marriage.
  • We know what is not working for women with an intimate partner who chooses to overpower them.

Mutual Influence Creates Successful Relationships

From research, we also learned when a couple has equal or shared power in their relationship they are in the best position to succeed. What does an equal relationship look like? One significant study (Steil 1997) showed when both partners see they can influence each other, they have the experience of being heard and recognized. This mutual influence fosters open communication and the greater likelihood of sharing feelings, needs, and vulnerabilities. Better intimacy is created with both partners benefitting and feeling satisfied with the relationship.Gender  Inequality Research Paper

However, Gottman recognized in his long-term research on marriage, husbands were far less willing to be influenced and often stonewalled or distanced themselves verbally and emotionally from conversations (Gottman and Silver 2000). He also determined from his studies that 81 percent of men who are not willing to be influenced by their partner are at risk for divorce. That women seem more interested in a balanced relationship between partners might account for the findings that more women instigate divorce (Coontz 2005).

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What is Gender Equality?

Gender equality is achieved when women and men enjoy the same rights and opportunities across all sectors of society, including economic participation and decision-making, and when the different behaviors, aspirations and needs of women and men are equally valued and favored.

The European Institute for Gender Equality has compiled an online Glossary of gender mainstreaming concepts and definitions, drawn from international and regional women’s human rights instruments, European Union and Council of Europe legislative and strategy documents.

The Council of Europe has also compiled a Gender Equality Glossary based on the definitions and terms of Council of Europe instruments and standards relating to gender equality and this is available online.

How Do We Measure Gender Equality?

Gender equality is measured by looking at the representation of men and of women in a range of roles.Gender  Inequality Research Paper

The Central Statistics Office regularly publishes “Women and Men in Ireland”, a compendium of key statistics which enable us to map progress achieved towards de facto gender equality in Ireland.

The European Union statistical office, Euro stat, publishes an overview of gender statistics for the European Union from fields such as education, the labor market, earnings and health, important for showing differences in the situations of women and men.

A number of international comparative gender equality indices also exist which offer a way to compare Ireland’s achievements with those of other countries. Gender  Inequality Research Paper Each index looks at a distinct list of parameters and the choice of parameters affects the outcome for each country.

European Institute for Gender Equality EU Gender Equality Index

The European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) EU Gender Equality Index provides an easily interpret able measure of gender equality in the EU across 6 key policy domains – work, money, knowledge, time, power and health, and two satellite domains (violence and intersecting inequalities).

United Nations Gender Inequality Index

The United Nations Gender Inequality Index is based on the premise that “all too often, women and girls are discriminated against in health, education and the labour market with negative repercussions for their freedom”.  The UN GII is a measure based on these inequalities.

World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report

The Global Gender Gap Report, introduced by the World Economic Forum in 2006, is another framework for capturing the magnitude and scope of gender-based disparities which benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, political, education and health criteria.  This Index looks at economic participation and opportunity deviation; educational attainment deviation; health and survival deviation and political empowerment deviation.

Social Watch Gender Equity Index

Social Watch is a network comprised by national coalitions of civil society organizations and it too prepares an index. The Social Watch gender equality index is based on the gap between women and men in education, the economy and political empowerment.Gender Inequality Research Paper

 

 

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